GLOBALIZATION: EMERGING ISSUES IN BUSINESS LEADERSHIP
Zacchaeus Abram Mathema
Adventist University of Africa, Private Bag Mbagathi, Magadi Rd, Kenya
When the phenomenon of globalization was first articulated, it was received with acclaim in some significant circles who viewed it as a process of enabling financial and investment markets to operate internationally without regimes interference, and fast moving information would enhance the process. Multinational companies embraced globalization as providing immense opportunities for developing business and expanding the democratic space for all nations. However, in this paper, I have argued that the process of globalization, as inevitable as it is, has exacerbated underdevelopment in developing nations and communities. I further argued that globalization has direct bearing on my foundational thesis: that globalization is apt to marginalize developing people and communities when sound moral principles do not animate players in the developmental game. The paper highlighted emerging pertinent issues that favor the stronger players at the expense of the weaker ones. In other words, I perceived globalization (as it is conceptualized today) as posing serious developmental challenges that need to be highlighted and addressed rationally in order to respond to all globalization dynamics responsibly. My conclusion was that the need to inject moral capital into international business, education, and governance was urgent.
Key words: Economic, moral capital, social progress, developing nations, ethical issues, business leadership
WILLINGNESS AND ELIGIBILITY TO MORTGAGE FINANCING IN UASIN GISHU COUNTY, KENYA:
APPLICATION OF DOUBLE HURDLE MODEL
Siele Richard Kiplangat & Tuitoek Daniel Kipruto
Moi University, P. O. Box 3900, Eldoret, Kenya
Onah Evans Otieno*
AICO Center, Egerton University, P.O. Box 8412, Eldoret, Kenya
*Corresponding Author E-mail – firstname.lastname@example.org
Mortgage financing plays a significant role in enabling people to be real estate property owners and or homeowners. Despite its significance, past statistics indicated that very few people accessed mortgage finance in Kenya. Previous research indicated that at best only 3% of households in urban areas in Kenya were eligible for mortgage financing. The purpose of this study was to investigate the factors that influence willingness to participate in mortgage financing and eligibility to mortgage financing in Uasin Gishu County, Kenya. The study sought to: determine the role of demographic factors, socio-economic variables and financial variables on willingness and eligibility to mortgage financing. The study adopted explanatory research design. The target population was obtained by visiting all financial institutions licensed by Central Bank of Kenya offering mortgages in Uasin Gishu County. Purposive and simple random sampling techniques were used to obtain 749 respondents for the study distributed proportionately to the 16 financial institutions in Uasin Gishu County. The study administered structured questionnaires individually to all respondents and analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics. Findings were presented in form of tables, cumulative frequency counts, percentages, graphs and charts. A Double Hurdle Model was employed using data collected on the assumption that willingness and eligibility to mortgage financing by respondents were two independent decisions and were influenced by the same decision factors. The results showed that the age, rental income, tax benefit, income level, loan repayment period and lending interest rate significantly influenced the willingness to participate in mortgage financing by the respondents. The results also showed that age and income level of the respondents significantly determined the eligibility to mortgage financing.
Key words: Mortgage financing, willingness, eligibility, double hurdle model, Uasin Gishu, Kenya
SAFETY POLICY IMPLEMENTATION FRAMEWORK
FOR SECONDARY SCHOOLS IN KENYA
Nyabuti Jane Kemunto*, Elizabeth Role, & Yona Balyage
University of Eastern Africa, Baraton, P. O. Box 2500-30100, Eldoret, Kenya
*Corresponding Author E-mail: email@example.com
This study dealt with the development of a safety policy implementation framework for secondary schools in Kenya. This was due to the fact that safety is becoming a global issue and yet teachers at University level have not been trained on safety implementation and management. The target population included 18 public National secondary schools in Kenya which had sat for KCSE since 2010. National schools were purposively selected to participate in the study. Stratified random sampling was used to sample 6 schools to take part in the study. The six national secondary schools had 6 head teachers, 120 class teachers, 300 form three students, 6 watchmen, and 4 Quality Assurance and Standards Officers (QASOs), making a total of 436 respondents. Instruments which were used for data collection included Questionnaire for Teachers and Students, Interview schedules for Principal, QASOS and school Watchman, and observation schedules. Qualitative data collected from interviews was transcribed and analyzed on an ongoing process as themes and sub-themes emerged. Quantitative data was analyzed by use of descriptive statistics in form of percentages, means and standard deviations. The significant differences in terms of implementation, level of awareness, attitudes of teachers and students, and strategies in enhancing school safety, were tested using One-way Analysis of Variance (ANOVA). The findings indicated that national secondary schools had done moderate implementation of safety policies due to a number of factors. There was minimal safety awareness, with variations in attitude among teachers and students. Head-teachers, Quality Assurance and Standards Officers (QASOs), teachers, students and security personnel were found to be playing a significant role in the implementation of safety policies in schools. It was also established that schools had various strategies in place for the implementation of safety policies. Suggested solutions towards improving the implementation of safety led to creation of a framework for the implementation of the safety policies in phases.
Key words: Safety, Policy Implementation, Awareness, Strategies and Framework
ADVENTIST EDUCATORS: ARE THEY PREPARING GLOBAL CITIZENS?
Doris Kagwiria Mwenda
P. O. Box 43844-00100, Nairobi
The Adventist philosophy of education offers an excellent opportunity to prepare global citizens: a fairly uniform human resource who can serve the church and the world regardless of their country of origin. This is only true to the extent the Adventist philosophy of education is implemented in Adventist institutions of learning. The purpose of the study on which this paper is based was to find out the perception of implementation of the Adventist philosophy of education by student and educators (teachers and administrators). It was conducted in secondary schools of Central Kenya Conference (CKC). A survey design was used and data was collected using questionnaires from a purposively selected sample of 282 form four students, 46 teachers and 6 school administrators. The findings revealed that there was inconsistency in the implementation of the Adventist philosophy of education. There was no established formal induction or seminars to acquaint the teachers and administrators on the Adventist philosophy of education. The stakeholders differed significantly in their perceptions of implementation of learner-centered methods, effective administration and the mental aspect of the holistic curriculum. Therefore, there is need to ensure the Adventist philosophy of education is implemented as per the policy in order to truly prepare global citizens, ready for this world and the world to come. There is need for induction and training on the philosophy for both teachers and administrators.
Key Words: Adventist Education, Implementation, Global citizens, Teachers, Administrators
THE INFLUENCE OF GLOBALIZATION ON MANAGEMENT OF UNIVERSITIES IN KENYA
Julius Otieno Gogo
Maseno University, P. O. Box 2299 – 40100, Kisumu, Kenya
Globalization is characterized by, but not limited to, liberalism, free market policies, information and communication technology, inter-connection, inter dependence, and borderless border that has made the world a global village. Globalization is the process by which businesses or other organizations develop international influence or start operating on an international scale. Globalization in education, therefore, implies the opening of local and nationalistic perspectives to a broader outlook of an interconnected and interdependent world with free transfer of knowledge, skills and attitudes. It means the integration of national education policies and practices into the international education systems through investment in education, innovation, and technology. The influence of globalization on management of university education is of great importance to developing countries such as Kenya. Students and scholars have been moving across the globe to acquire or disseminate information respectively. But policy and technological developments of the past few decades have spurred increases in cross-border investment in education and migration of the educated such that the world has actually entered a qualitatively new phase in its investment and provision of university education. Advances in information technology, in particular, have dramatically transformed economic life of the people and hence the need for education to go beyond the borders. These have serious ramifications on the administration and management of universities in Kenya. In terms of education, globalization has led to more influx and quick dissemination of information through the Internet between countries and cultural intermingling. On the other hand, it has resulted in labour drain and less cultural diversity. In Kenya the challenges facing universities include limited opportunities available in public universities beyond their capacity to plan and finance, the desire to complement government-managed institutions of higher learning and a decline in quality. This paper, therefore, reviews the influence of globalization on management of university education with particular attention to human resource management, the effect of opening up of campuses in urban centres, ICT infrastructure and its use in teaching/learning process, research capacity, alternative sourcing for funds and quality assurance. The paper recommends education reforms that would maintain acceptable university academic standards. These include reforms on competition, reduction of costs and equity considerations.
Key words: Globalization, university education, human resources, innovation, research capacity, quality assurance.
CONSTRUCTIVISM IN TEACHER PREPARATION IN KENYA
University of Eastern Africa, Baraton, P. O. Box 2500
This article summarizes the traditional methods of teacher preparation, in which teachers are trained to efficiently transfer the information from the instructor to the learner and its shortcomings. Tella et al (2010) noted that such instructors-centred methods make the learners not to enjoy their lessons and therefore miss the benefits of intellectual discovery. The author then proposes some principles of Constructivist teacher preparation procedures which could be incorporated so that the instructors encourage the learners to reflect on their experiences and integrate such experiences with the new information in the process of constructing knowledge. Such a learner-centred method has been noted (Chika, 2012) to be powerful in enhancing learning achievement than instructor-centred. The incorporation of the constructivist teacher preparation into Kenya’s Education system would reflex the current global curriculum trends where various international countries, including Africas such as Ghana, Nigeria, Namibia, Zimbabwe and South Africa are equally trying the system for better quality Education.
Key words: Constructivism, Traditional Teaching Methods, Teacher Education, Instructor- centred, Learner- centred, Prio Knowledge, Incorporation.
THE IMPACTS OF GLOBALIZATION ON HIGHER EDUCATION CURRICULUM:
IMPLICATIONS FOR EDUCATIONAL PRACTICES
Korso Gude Butucha
University of Eastern Africa, Baraton
P. O. Box 2500-30100, Eldoret, Kenya
This article will examine how globalization challenges the ways we have traditionally conceptualize higher education curriculum and reviews how globalization may affect educational practices in higher education and its implications. The primary objective of this study was to identify the impacts of globalization on higher education curriculum and create awareness of the need for rethinking in educational practices in higher education curriculum.The information in this article was obtained through review of literature; articles published in peer review journals from the search engines and published books. Although there are many definitions of curriculum, here the focus is on the definition by Hass (1987) which states that curriculum is “all of the experiences that individual learners have in a program of education whose purpose is to achieve broad goals and related specific objectives, which is planned in terms of a framework of theory and research or past and present professional practice” (p.5). Findings reveal that globalization is complex system, involving a large number of integrated components operating together and characterized by constant changes. Although globalization is not a new phenomenon, current trends show that it is erupting every nation in a very high speed. Global issues challenge higher education every day and thus, education can no longer be seen in a strictly national context.
Key words: Curriculum, globalization, Information communication, Innovation, Technology.
ACCREDITATION OF INSTITUTIONS OF HIGHER LEARNING IN
A GLOBAL ERA: PROSPECTS, CHALLENGES, AND IMPLICATIONS
Fanta Hotamo, , Korso Gude Butucha, & Yona Balyage*
University of Eastern Africa, Baraton, Kenya, P. O. Box 2500, Eldoret, Kenya
*Corresponding Author E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Accreditation is a process through which institutions of higher learning are certified for meeting standards comparable to other institutions of similar category worldwide. In a global context, institutions of higher learning, and the program they offer are compared to international standards for meeting criteria set to train personnel to boost the world economy, promote multicultural society and serve in a global world political arena. The individual learner faces a challenging context of comparing his or her identity with the national, regional and global ones, abilities, values, cultures, and lifestyles. To meet this challenge educational systems around the world have to shift from traditional teaching strategies, and impress transform to digital methods encompassing the ever increasing developmental strategies. Thus, this study aims at addressing accreditation of institutions of higher learn in a global era its prospects, challenges, and implications. The methodology used in this study was descriptive narrative in which ideas in the literature reviewed from books, journals, and internet sources were internalized and interpreted. The two fold purposes of the study were: firstly to buttress the challenges emanating from the accreditation of institutions of higher learning and their programs embodied in the fact that while globalization agenda seeks to harmonize the standards across the board, institutions seek to advance their diversified visions, missions and philosophies and what happens to the institutional identity is of paramount importance to reckon with; secondly, the global arena encourages the virtual universities and virtual libraries with less physical facilities including lecture halls and libraries. Therefore, it remains a challenge of what would the accreditation process anchor on and uphold when there are no comparable facilities of virtual learning to traditional institutions of higher learning and their demonstration of quality teaching in observable, verifiable and quantified environment. Results reveal that as the world plans to operate a global economy, global political arena, and global cultural values across boarders, the eminent development of global education to inculcate the global world view is paramount. This behooves international processes of accrediting institutions offering higher education and their programs for international recognition and fitness to job markets. Fundamental to this is the paradigm shift from institutional and organizational vision mission and philosophy of education to the global ones; and it is recommended that organizations and institutions running higher education need to fully understand and review the facets they stand for and compare and contrast them with accreditation criteria and make decisions to either live or die for; and to put up structures in the organizations and institutions which review their roles based on their vision, mission and philosophy for which they were established and continue operating in a global setting.
Key words: Accreditation, Education, Global Education, Globalization, Institutions of Higher learning, Quality Assurance.
ANTIMALARIAL ACTIVITY OF CROTON MACROSTACHYUS EXTRACTS AGAINST PLASMODIUM SP.
Jackie K. Obey*
University of Eastern Africa, Baraton, P. O. Box 2500-30100, Eldoret, Kenya
Moses M. Ngeiywa & Paul Kiprono
University of Eldoret, P. O. Box 1125, Eldoret, Kenya
Kenya Medical Research Institute, Department of Malaria, Nairobi, Kenya
University of Helsinki, Ruralia Institute, Mikkelli, Finland
Jussi Kauhanen & Atte Von-Wright
University of Eastern Finland, Kuopio, Finland
*Corresponding Author E-mail: email@example.com
The use of medicinal plants to cure parasitic infections has been practiced for time immemorial. Malaria control using plant extracts can be targeted against the parasites both in vitro and in vivo or against the female anopheline vectors. Some chemical constituents in plants with antimalarial activity include the alkaloids, terpenes, terpenoids, epoxides, quinones and various steroidal compounds.The overall aim of this study is to isolate and test antimalarial compounds from the extracts of C. macrostachyus in vivo. The data for this study was obtained by an experimental case-control procedure using inbred Balb/c mice for treatment and control groups. Mice in groups of six were infected with Plasmodium berghei (ANKA) and treated with various concentrations of C. macrostachyus extracts, while artemether was used as positive control and Tween-80 as a negative control. An in vivo treatment assay of C. macrostachyus against P. berghei showed percent suppression of parasitaemia for ethyl acetate extract positive control (87.64±1.264), 500mg/kg(81.71±0.728), 250mg/kg(81.71±0.728) and 100mg/kg (61.82±0.571). The methanol extract showed percent suppression of parasitaemia for positive control (97.22±0.225), 500mg/kg(68.14±0.670), 250mg/kg (33.61±0.609) and 100mg/kg (27.44±0.443). The aqueous extract results were for positive control as 99.20±0.156, 500mg/kg, 71.85±0.447, 250mg/kg, 44.23±0.064 and 100mg/kg 24.36±0.447. The butanol extract give results for positive control as 100±0.000, 500mg/kg as 80.44±1.259, 250mg/kg as 60.66±0.445 and 100mg/kg as 72.69±0.306. Analysis of variance showed significant differences in the suppression of parasitaemia p(<0.001).
The study showed that it is possible to control the growth of parasites by various extracts of C. macrostachyus in vivo in Balb/c mice. C. macrostachyus extracts can be further studied and purified for possible incorporation into antimalarial drug production.
Key words: Croton macrostachyus, Plasmodium falciparum D6, Plasmodium berghei ANKA, parasitaemia
THE ROLE OF A NURSE IN DISASTER MANAGEMENT AT KAPSABET DISTRICT HOSPITAL: A GLOBAL HEALTH CONCERN.
Gladys C. Seroney
Maseno University, Private Bag, Maseno
A disaster is a catastrophic incident that commonly leads to immense damage and devastation. Whether the cause of the event is natural or man-made, the outcomes can be shocking (Coppla, 2011). Preparedness is one of the major components of disaster response. Nurses comprise the largest healthcare workgroup in most countries and are at the forefront of the healthcare response to disasters. The purpose of the study was to investigate the role of nurses in disaster management at Kapsabet District Hospital. A cross sectional survey was conducted. The study population consisted of nurses working at District Hospital in Nandi Country. Kenya. Structured questionnaires were used to collect data on nurses’ levels of awareness regarding disaster preparedness, their attitudes on disaster management plans and drills, and the nurses’ current practices regarding disaster preparedness. 61 nurses were given questionnaires to fill, 35 questionnaires were filled and returned. Descriptive statistics was used to summarise and analyse data into frequencies and percentages. The findings revealed that 74.3% knew what disaster was. 57.1% understood what disaster preparedness involved while 40% on the nurses understood their role in disaster drill. 86% reported that disaster planning was for few people in the hospital.68% and 80% of the nurses reported that disaster drills and training were not done frequent respectively. The research recommended that hospital management should ensure disaster plans are in locations accessible to all health personnel and that there should be regular training and drills for the purposes of disaster preparedness.
Key Words: Disaster management, role of nurses, disaster preparedness, global health